Coca-Cola: Coming Together campaign



This essay will describe and analyse the Coca-Cola Coming Together campaign launched in 2013. The different  approaches between the UK and the USA are also discussed with the help of Chaffey’s 6 steps campaign plan version:

  1. Goal setting and tracking for interactive marketing communications
  2. Campaign Insight
  3. Segmentation and Targeting
  4. Offer, message development and creative
  5. Budgeting and selecting the digital media mix
  6. Integration into overall media schedule or plan

Goal setting and tracking for interactive marketing communications include SMART and annual marketing objectives and campaign specific objectives:


Coca-Cola has launched a new campaign initiative ‘Coming Together’ on 14th January 2013. The main objective is to beat one of the most worldwide serious health problems – obesity. Besides, they wanted to create awareness towards diabetes sick people. The company provided all packages with calorie counts information on the front of its products, and made their low and no-calorie drinks more available in each market in 200 countries where Coca-Cola is sold.


Coca-Cola points out in the first two-minute commercial video “Coming Together” that it offers 180 low- and no-calorie beverages out of more than 650 beverage products. When appearing on CNN’s in October, Michael Jacobson (executive director of the CSPI) agreed that sugar and soda consumption are indeed on the decline.

The Coca Cola Campaign has changed the visual packaging of the coke bottles and named “Diet Coke” which is more feminine and “Coca-Cola Zero” suitable for men.


In its new campaign, Coca-Cola states that “beating obesity will take action by all of us, based on one simple, common-sense fact: All calories count, no matter where they come from. And if you eat and drink more calories than you burn off, you’ll gain weight.”


Coca Cola has not only increased the number of low and no-calorie beverages that they produce, but also decreased calories consumed per serving by 22%, and decreased the number of calories consumed by school-aged children in school by 90%.

But perhaps most important is a move Coca-Cola has already made: the decision to add the calorie counts to the front of their bottles and cans, to make it even easier for consumers to make informed decisions.


Coca-Cola spokesman Ben Scheidler said in an e-mail that “2013 is going to be a landmark year in terms of expanding partnerships and efforts to educate consumers about energy balance.”

Campaign insight

Dahlen, et al.(2010) states that it is important to visualise the contexts within which marketing communications strategy is set in order to provide a realistic impression of which audiences must be targeted, and what objectives and strategy are required to bring about effective communications.

Campaign insight has four context analysis:

  • Customer context:
    Includes attitudes, motivations, perceptions and behaviour; involvement level and potential risk
  • Business (Global) context:
    It is all about core values, attitudes and company culture in general.
  • Internal context:
    Employees, management and staff are the key target audience for communications and have to deliver he brand promise expressed in any marketing campaigns. It includes attitudes, core values and company cultural backgrounds.
  • External context:
    External context includes intermediaries, media, societal influences and conditions.

Segmentation and Targeting     

According to Dahlen (2010) in marketing, market ‘potential’ can often be segmented by using various demarcation criteria: demographics, socio-geographics, psychographics and so on. The Coming Together campaign was mostly designed for middle-income young people aged 12 to 25 (demographic and psychographic consumer markets). At this year stage people are more likely to suffer from obesity illness and are more dependent on different brands. The Coming Together commercial shows a wide range of faces of various ages, races, and genders e.g. children, parents, physicians, and even business professionals. This campaign, and Coca Cola Corporation in general, also covers around 200 countries all over the world which describes geographic segment.

Targeting of specific segments of a market helps reduce the wastage of resources associated with mass marketing and is likely to increase sales as it is the potentially better customers who are focused upon. (Egan, 2007) Targeting is a variety of profitable segments and a decision on how these clients can be reached.


Offers, message, creative

To support the campaign, Coca-Cola created a website,, providing further details of the worldwide program and a 60-second version of its Coming Together commercial video, a two minutes video is released early this year. “Work It Out Calculator” helps to balance the calories in your favourite Coca-Cola drink by doing popular exercises, pastimes and household tasks. Also, “BMI Calculator” helps to identify if person is in a healthy weight range, underweight, overweight or obese. They also supporting vital physical activity programs like America is Your Park, Triple Play and many others. In addition, Coke industry is now implementing the Calories Count™ Vending Program and their Foundation will expand the Coca-Cola Troops for Fitnessprogram to big cities across the country in 2013. They always associated themselves with healthy activities.

Budgeting & selecting the digital media mix

The setting of marketing communications budgets is always a source of debate in organisations, and exposes differing perspectives on whether marketing communications is a cost or an investment, and on whether there is cause-and-effect input/output objectivity to its deployment. (Dahlen, 2010) Unfortunately, Coca-Cola cannot publicly provide the exact budget list for any campaign they launch in each country, region or how much they spend on advertising, radio, print, television advertising and other media. The total worldwide amount per 2006 year was approximately $2.6 billion (source:

Digital media is so pervasive that consumers have access to information any time and any place they want it. Digital marketing and its associated channels such as web, social media, mobile, direct mail, etc. are important in order to deepen the organisation’s insight into customer behaviour and preferences. For example, Coke website provide the idea of sharing photos or video with personal stories of customers; this includes fitness initiatives or a good start of a balanced life.

Integration into overall media schedule or plan

Pickton and Broderick suggest 4Cs of Integrated Marketing Communications:

  • Coherence: all information should have logical connections via different channels.
    Coca Cola Coming Together campaign focused on delivering the same message all across different countries by using social networks and other online applications. It helped to raise interest amongst customers by giving them opportunity to share information and experience, in other words, Coca Cola let their customers to have a dialogue between each other.
  • Consistency: reinforce not contradict, sending the same message to the audience.
    Coming Together campaign had the same message for everyone: being health, active and do sports exercises.
  • Continuity: every channel needs to be connected/consisted over time.
    Coca Cola always updated their website based on upcoming information from their customers.
  • Complementary: synergistic, being able to combine communication efforts together.
    All the information, messages and promotions helped Coming Together campaign’s target audience to fight with obesity and have a healthy and balanced lifestyle,

Different approaches between the UK and the US

The first anti-obesity ad was released on 17th January 2013 in U.S.A. This version, which uses the same images as the original but absolutely different voiceover, lists the serious health risks of diet sodas, including kidney problems, obesity and much more. Then, it just gets even more depressing. “Imagine if cigarette companies said they were doing something responsible to protect you.” The last line brings it home, with absolutely no sugar coating. “Don’t drink Coke. It is killing you and your family.” By now, it has collected over 475,000 views.

According to AdAge magazine (2013), the United Kingdom Advertising Standards Authority banned Coca-Cola ad for misleading exercise claims as consumers were confused about what it takes to burn the 139 calories in a can. In response to that, Coca-Cola launched a “Be OK” ad which clearly shows that by doing extra physical exercises and have fun, it is possible to burn 139 calories. (The U.S. version uses 140 calories, instead of 139.)


The Big Knit campaign.


This essay describes the most well-known charity organisation Age UK with the soft drinks company “The Innocent” which launched “A Big Knit” campaign in 2013. The “Big Knit” is a joint campaign between Age UK and innocent drinks to help vulnerable older people. The essay will follow the Kotler and Lee Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) campaign plan in order to show how Age UK achieved its objectives by implementing CSR in their business tactics.

  • Identify points of inter-section between the business and society

According to the ONS (Office for National Statistics), during the winter 2012/2013, Age UK claimed 30,000 excess winter deaths in England and Wales, particularly among people aged over 75+. (Rankin, 2013) Since this shameful and preventable situation, the Age UK charity urged the government to lower energy bills so that elderly could keep their homes warm during winter season. The charity also launched a new campaign called “Spread the Warmth” asking people to help an older person to feel well and warm. A 3 minute commercial video shows some old ladies telling their severe and cold winter survival story; the Age UK representatives help such people by bringing wool clothes, helping to do shopping, fitting radiators and heaters and other home improvements. Their main website also provide donations buttons, volunteering opportunities in order to help elderly not to feel lonely. This commercial advertisement encouraged The Innocent Company to launch the “Big Knit” campaign with the aim to help older people during the cold winter months through befriending visits, emergency cold weather support, warm meals and other vital services. It is interesting to note, that Innocent Drinks Company is famous for its 100% pure fruit juices since 1999. This fact probably was the reason to launch a “Big Knit” campaign together with Age UK charity organisation in order to focus on the same message and reach a better result.

The joint project started with older people from Age Concerns around the UK‚ innocent consumers and Sainsbury’s staff knitting tiny woollen hats to place on the top of innocent smoothie bottles. Hats were knitted by knitting groups with the local Age UKs and knitting groups across the United Kingdom. ( The smoothies with hats are sold nationally and for every one sold innocent donated 25p to Age UK. In 2012, innocent smoothies with hats were sold in Sainsbury’s, Waitrose, Boots, Tesco, WHSmith and Asda stores. The raised money will go to funding local and national projects to help keep people warm and well in winter.

The Big Knit website also provides a scheme on how to knit a hat and an opportunity to knit a virtual hat online. This campaign allowed people to contribute and be involved in the marketing campaign CSR as well as to create a positive brand image among people of completely different age, job and social class.

  • Measure impacts

Measurability links who saw the advertisement and then what specific action occurred in response (e.g. purchase intension, recall and brand awareness) linked back to marketing communication objectives. (Dahlen et al., 2010)

In 2013 Age UK raised over £244,000 by knitting over 1 million hats. ( By 2014, the total amount of raised money reached £1.75 million in 10 years’ time. Also, the hat gallery of 2013 on social network Flirck shows almost 6 million knitted hats with the help of thousands of people across the UK. Social networks such as Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn helped to raise awareness and interest by “Share” and “Follow” buttons. Instagram, Pinterest and Youtube also play an important role in word-of-mouth communication and public relations.

  • Rank & prioritise key issues

The key issues for this campaign are:

–          High mortality rate amongst old people during the winter season in the UK that was the reason for Innocent Drinks and Age UK to join together.

–          Old people are in a desperate need for care and help in order to keep their houses warm.

–          Interest people in helping old people by doing donation in such a creative way (knitting hats) and make them trust this joint campaign.       

  • Establish small number of key initiatives.

    The main key of establishing a small number of key initiatives is that it is something everyone can contribute to, that will advance the organisation. The website provide an online tool where visitors can create their own version of the big knitter – the colour of drink, style of hats and other accessorises. By sharing the masterpiece on Facebook or Twitter, the Innocent Drinks will donate 10p to Age UK. Also, there are knitting patterns and how-to sections showing how to knit hats from beginner to expert level. Some video lessons are also shared on Youtube channel in order to raise awareness and interest among people.

  • Set targets / KPIs

    – to promote awareness and understanding of tough old people lives during severe weather in winter by creating a woolly art installation.
    – to engage people to take care through the act of creating and through the social nature of knitting.
    – to improve the mortality rate of elderly across the UK during winter seasons.

  • Monitor results

Since this campaign started, Innocent has raised more than £1.3 million to help look after older people and four million hats have been knitted. In 2012, the Big Knit raised £115,000 for Age UK.

  • Communicate externally
  1. Engage with key stakeholders
    The Innocent Drinks created a dialogue with its customers and communicate with them directly through the donations, knitting hats techniques, competitions’ winners, involved them in social media life by sharing and following buttons. All this helped to have a positive effect on the brand.
  2. Listen
    If the organisation has a dialogue with their customers, that means they listen to each other. Innocent listens to its customers and gives them opportunity to choose the design of hats with all the needed information and knitting techniques. Age UK . in turn, listen to their elderly people and has a clear mission to make their life easier and warm.
  3. To be part of corporate identity and be part of the corporate brand
    Innocent always has been promoting healthy lifestyle and 100% pure juices to their buyers. The joint campaign with Age UK charity organisation did not change the overall vision and beliefs of the Innocent Drinks. They both made their brands stronger, widen their audience range and became popular in social media.


[Anon]. ([n.d]). Social Media and Charities – The Innocent Big Knit. Available: Last accessed 24th Apr 2014.

Dahlen,M et al. (2010). Marketing Communications: A brand narrative approach. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. p. 474.

Rankin, J et al.. (2013). Winter deaths rose by almost a third in 2012-13. Available at: [Last accessed 23rd Apr 2014.]




Operations Management: Lean management. A wedding party at the Green Hotel.

1.0 Introduction
The report provides a literature review with a thorough research about the philosophy of the lean management and its common concepts by providing a number of well-known companies’ examples. It also discusses and analyses how the Green Hotel organization implements the concepts within a lean management system in practice by organising a wedding occasion. Some calculations and other appendixes are provided in order to determine the extra resources and the scheduling of the work.

2.0 The Philosophy of Lean Management
Lean management system is one of the most innovative and popular management techniques, which many firms are using today. According to Plenert (2007), lean is a systematic approach that focuses the entire enterprise on continuously improving quality, cost, delivery, and safety by seeking to eliminate waste, create flow, and increase the velocity of the system’s ability to meet customer demand. It also means that the flow of products or services always delivers exactly what customers want, in exact quantities and exactly when needed at the lowest possible price.
The basic concepts of lean management are: value stream mapping, 5S’s, continuous improvement, flow, just-in-time (JIT), total quality management (TQM), waste minimisation and, in some applications, 6 sigma methodology. Pascal (2007) states that value stream mapping is an invaluable tool that helps organisations to grasp the current condition and identify improvement opportunities. In other words, it is a technique for dramatically representing a process, to aid critical analysis of the process by a team of knowledgeable people. According to Bicheno (2009) the main purpose of mapping is to design the future. This is done by establishing priorities for lean implementation, short and medium term. It is also a great tool for ideas generation in general. 5S is perhaps the most popular tool in lean. The typical Japanese 5Ss are generally translated into sort, simplify, scan, standardise and Sustain steps. The objectives of a 5S are to reduce waste and variation as well as to improve productivity. By implementing 5S concept, places are clean and clear, highly motivated employees are working according to an order without any stress or pressure. Chambers and Johnston et al (2009) argue that continuous improvement adopts an approach to improving performance that assumes a never-ending series of small incremental improvement steps. Goetsch (2013) agrees that continual improvement seeks to eliminate waste in all forms, improve quality of products or services, and improve customer reaction- and do all of this while at the same time reducing costs. With JIT concept, a business holds no stock and instead relies upon deliveries of raw materials and other resources to arrive exactly when they are needed. (BBC, 2014) Dell Inc. successfully applied JIM principles in order to be able to provide an exceptionally short lead times to their customers with quickly assembly and shipping. Many principles of flow are linked with JIT. According to Goetsch (2013) flow production means production that runs easily and steadily without disruption. Boddy (2014) describes TQM as a philosophy of management that is driven by customer needs and expectations and focuses on continually improving work processes. This concept also includes every person in organisation who develop the idea of continuous and incremental improvement. Six sigma also plays a significant role in the overall process. It is a strategy within the context of total quality that moves the target to a far higher level of quality than organisations have succeed in the past. The objective of lean six sigma is to make the organisation better in its routine work and processes, its products or services, and its business outcomes.
It is believed that the most significant part of the lean philosophy is its focus on the elimination of all forms of waste which does not add value. According to Slack et al. (2011) there are seven types of waste: over-production, waiting time, transport, process, inventory, motion and defectives. Bicheno et al. (2009) believe that the waste of overproduction is the most serious of all the wastes because it is the source of many issues and other wastes. Overproduction is all about producing more than needed by the next process in any operation. For instance, to print documents or process items before they are required by the next person in the process. The waste of waiting is probably the second most important waste. It usually appears due to broken machinery, lack of skilled staff and discipline or inefficient planning. For example, in a factory business, any time that an item is seen to be not moving is a sign of waste. Transporting waste cannot be fully eliminated but it is also a waste that should be reduced over time. This particularly includes pointless transfers or distance travelled by materials, information or people. Movement or process itself may be a source of waste as moving customers or products around the operation often does not add value. (Slack et al, 2011) The waste of unnecessary inventory (such as raw materials, work in progress and end items) also exists. Next in importance is the waste of unnecessary motions which refer to both human and layout. For instance, an operation may look busy but sometimes no value is being added by the work. The waste of defects also cost money, for example, Toyota philosophy is that a defect should be regarded as a challenge rather than something to be tradeoff against what is ultimately poor management.
Nowadays, many companies such as Nike, Intel, Ford, Toyota, Textron, Caterpillar Inc. and many others use lean management principles. For example, Nike worked with Fair Labor Association in order to create performance indicators and maintainable sourcing and launched the Sustainable Apparel Coalition with the US Environmental Protection Agency and other manufacturers, and in the process saved money on energy and waste materials. (Wilkes, 2013) Intel, the world’s largest computer chip maker company, had to spend 14 weeks to introduce a new chip to the factory, however, after using lean principles it takes only 10 days. The US Caterpillar machinery manufacturer admitted that pace is a critical characteristic of lean integration, and if project takes too long to complete, the business will fail. In order to be successful, projects must be quickly implemented.
The main benefit of the lean management system is that the work which is under execution is reduced. Lean management system increases the production level to a higher level. It also focuses on customer satisfaction. E.g. when the products or services are good quality and delivered on time, the company receives a positive feedback from the client. This feedback improves the sales of the product and also builds a strong trust relationship and a sense of need between the company and its customers. Leadership is an important part of lean management system; leadership helps to increase income of the company. A well-qualified and skilled professional who manages the company can provide a better development to the business. The lean management system is especially effective and productive when a task is performed by a group of members rather than individually. It is also useful for both small and large scale industry.

 3.0 Application of concepts
The successful implementation of lean management philosophy to any organisation requires a thorough analysis and understanding of the current situation and possible valuable outcome. There are three concepts which are the most likely to be implemented in hospitality industry, particularly for the Green Hotel Company: value stream mapping, 5S and TQM.
Value stream mapping (VSM), the Japanese concept of Kaizen, is a tool that uses symbols to describe a value stream. Good mapping practice has four maps: current state, future state, ideal state, and action plan. It provides an opportunity to visualise a horizontal process view through organisational and functional structures in order to form a better understanding of the true value of each activity. (Aitken, 2014) One of the main advantage of VSM is that it provides a very clear focus to where the lean tools must be applied and ensures that the end to end process is optimised. Danaher Corporation have been using VSM as a tool in order to focus on activities in the pursuit of a lean organisation over the 5 years. It is not uncommon for processes with lead times in excess of 20 days to be completely restructured to less than 5 days over a period of 3-6 months, in addition to major decreases in inventory and batch sizes. (Source: VSM can help the Green Hotel organisation to guide creative thinking around process redesign and improvement options. For instance, the process of cleaning a hotel room can be easily analysed and planned with the help of value stream mapping. By implementing the VSM, the organisation can easily detect waste in a business process. Having a visual image may help the Green Hotel business to see the story of how the product or service makes its way to customers’ hands.
The 5S process is one of the most central and widely applied component of lean management. Five-S is considered as essential to continual improvement. (Goetsch, 2013) It is a method of doing things that eliminates waste and reduces faults, defects, and other damages. Benefits to the business from using the 5S methodology include improving quality, lowering costs, promoting security, building buyer confidence, increasing factory up-time, and lowering repair prices. A proper sortation of stock equipment such as spare tools, documentation and other items can help the hotel to identify the useless things and dispose it in order to save time searching around the work area. The useful items must be stored safe and kept in its place so that they are visible and immediately available to the workforce. This storage manner can comfort the hotel’s staff to access the needed equipment (extra chairs, bed clothes, detergents) by having it easily at hand every time it is needed. All of these lead to a cleaning work area around as the act of keeping everything clean becomes a form of inspection of machines, tools and environmental conditions. Standardize and sustain state for selecting the best practice and make sure that rules are followed and functioning well in organisation. The implementation of 5S can make hotel employees feel better about their work environment as well as improve productivity and reduce possible waste.
It is believed that TQM is a key concept of lean management and plays an essential role in improving the quality of products and services based on customers’ feedback. The Four Season Hotel is a good example of successfully implementing TQM methodology. Their golden rule is all about treating their guests with politeness and intelligence. They focus on listening carefully to the guests and meeting their expectations and needs. All Four Seasons hotels use a ‘guest history system’ to track guests’ preferences in order to prevent possible mistakes in the future. (Slack, N & Chambers, S; 2009) Ryanair, on the other hand, does not offer luxury service as they position themselves as a low-cost airline. Both companies describe quality as ‘getting the service you expect, given what you are paying’ by seeing things from a customer’s standpoint. The implementation of TQM methodology to the Green Hotel organisation can help to raise profitability, improve and increase customer satisfaction/loyalty, enhance market image as well as straighten competitive position. TQM covers all parts of the organisation and includes every person in the organisation as well as across the supply chain; it has clear systems and procedures to support quality and developing the idea of continuous improvement, implemented by teams; also, it tracks all costs affecting quality, especially those of failures and of getting things right first time. (Boddy, 2014)

4.0 Challenge Plan
This section describes the Green Hotel and provides a solution to the problem and a plan for running a wedding party for 120 guests in 8 weeks’ time. Some calculations, extra resources and scheduling of entertainment activities are analysed and prepared in clear details. Boddy (2014) states that planning sets out the overall direction of work which includes forecasting future trends, assessing resources and developing performance objectives.
It is obvious that the wedding party is usually celebrated on Friday-Sunday week days. According to the information produced, the average bedroom occupancy is 60% Friday to Sunday what makes it easy to locate 120 guests in 30 bedrooms hotel:

30 bedrooms – 100%
x bedrooms – 60%
30*60/100=18 (bedrooms) – It means that 60% of occupancy takes 18 bedrooms.

30 bedrooms – 100%
12 bedrooms – x %
12*100/30=40 – It means that the rest 12 bedrooms (out of 30) takes 40%.

Besides, most rooms are refundable if someone cancel it 48h ahead of check-in process.
All produce is sourced from suppliers within a 50 miles area. This supports their “Green ambitions” and helps to minimise their carbon footprint. Delivering smaller quantities more frequently can reduce inventory levels and shorten lead times. It will take approximately 2 hours for a vehicle driving 50mph in both ways, stuff loading may take around 1.5-2 hours as well as unloading:

2+ (2*2) =6 (hours) – All the stuff delivery takes maximum 6 hours in a day.

According to the fact that the busiest days are Fridays-Sundays, it is more advisable to do any delivery processes on Mondays-Thursdays as it is more convenient for the working staff to meet their time management and set priorities correctly. However, food must be delivered as close to the wedding party day so that it will stay fresh.

The main resources list includes:
Food and Beverages (hot and cold) (480 portions of dishes- three course lunch & buffet, 108 alcoholic bottles for cocktails and etc., 240 bottles of soft drinks)
Extra furniture (chairs x 120, tables x 30, outdoor seats x 10)
Extra kitchen dishes and table clothes (plates x 120, glasses x 290, knives & forks x 290, napkins etc.)
Extra bedclothes x 120
Large TV screens x 2
Music and sound equipment (microphones, loudspeakers) x 1 set
Other (fireworks, flowers, grill etc.) x quantity by request
The following graph below illustrates the delivery dates during the 8 weeks’ time.


Every wedding occasion requires a variety of entertainments for adult and their children. The Green Hotel can provide an outdoor ceremony for newlyweds and their guests as well as an outside party with different snacks, beverages and buffet facilities. There is a need to hire more bartenders and runners who can serve food and cocktails as well as do cleaning at night. Another activity for adults is a large TV screen with photo collage showing the bride’s and groom’s life. Different musicians, DJs or showgirls may cover the background and make the event especially memorable and lively. The Green Hotel also provides a large dance floor with disco ball and other decorations. Activities for children are also included, for example, a game room and an outdoor swings. Any other entertainments or decorations facilities can be booked outside of the Green Hotel. The graph below shows the supposed entertainments timescale during the wedding event.


ISO 9000’s operating principle (Plan-Do-Check-Act) will help to guarantee that the products or services provided by organisations are regularly fit for the intended purposes. Plan-Do-Check-Ant cycle result in continual improvement for products/services, processes and systems of processes. (Goetsch, 2013) By establishing objectives and developing the future plans, and putting it into action, it is easier to measure the result of action or were the objectives met? It will help to learn from the results and make any necessary changes to the plan and repeat the cycle. The implementation ISO 9000 to the Green Hotel’s wedding occasion will help to set priorities and improve client satisfaction as well as achieve continual improvement of organisational performance and competitiveness. The cycle below illustrates the implementation of ISO 9000 to the wedding party at the Green Hotel.


5.0 Conclusion

The main aim of the lean system is to eliminate waste so as to improve productivity – the only effective strategy under the new economics. Lean activities are interrelated and mutually supportive and are informed by the same way of thinking. The positive goals of lean production include creating flow so that the customer can pull and involving the workers in improvement activities. (Pascal, 2007) This report also produced a solution to a planning problem at the Green Hotel by providing a list of needed resources and its quantities, schedule of delivery dates and wedding entertainment activities.

6.0 References

Aitken, A. (2014). Lean: Concepts and Realities. Available: Last accessed 14th Apr 2014.]

BBC. (2014). Business studies: Just in Time. Available: Last accessed 10th Apr 2014.]

Boddy, D (2014). Management Production. 6th ed. London: Pearson Education Ltd. p.656,586, 20

Bicheno, J & Holweg, M (2009). The Lean Toolbox: The Essential Guide to Lean Transformation. 4th ed. Buckingham: PICSIE Books. p.22-24

Chambers,S & Johnston,R et al (2009). Operations and Process Management: Principles and Practice for Strategic Impact. 2nd ed. Essex: Pearson Education Ltd. p.440,386-387

Goetsch,D & Davis,S (2013). Quality Management for Organisational Excellence. 7th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education. p.396-397,38,266,233

Oeeuk. (2012). Value Stream Mapping. Available: Last accessed 14th Apr 2014.]

Pascal, D (2007). Lean Production. 2nd ed. New York: Productivity Press. p.25-26,87

Plenet, G (2007). Reinventing Lean: introducing lean management into the supply chain. Oxford: Elsevier. p.146

Slack, N & Lewis, M (2011). Operations Strategy. 3rd ed. Essex: Pearson Education. p.91,92

Slack, N et al. (2011). Essentials of Operations Management. London: Pearson Education. p.89

Wilkes, J. (2013). Top Ten Lean Manufacturers. Available: [Last accessed 8th Apr 2014.]